Care of the nose and sinuses is one of the primary skills on the ENT specialist. Management of disorders of the nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, allergies, sense of smell, and nasal respiration (breathing), as well as the external appearance of the nose are part of an ENT's area of expertise.
There are two main types of nasal surgery. Septoplasty is outpatient surgery. This is a functional operation and done to improve nasal breathing. Rhinoplasty, on the other hand, is typically done to improve the appearance of the nose. The indication for either surgery may be previous injury resulting in deformity and/or functional deficit.
There are four pairs of paranasal sinuses (commonly called simply sinuses). In some situations the drainage and ventilation of the sinuses become impaired. When medical or allergy treatment is unsuccessful in alleviating symptoms, surgery may be necessary to reestablish normal ventilation and drainage. There are many different types of sinus surgeries depending on the sinus to be operated on, depending on the preference of the surgeon, the severity of the disease, etc. Most of this surgery is done as an outpatient. Allergy is frequently related to the development of sinus disease. Management of allergies is often a critical part of the total treatment plan.